Listing objects


How to programmatically generate folder listings in Plone.


Plone has several methods of getting the list of folder items, depending on whether:

  • you want to get all items, or only items visible for the currently logged in user;

  • you want to get hold of the item objects themselves or indexed metadata (the latter is faster);

  • you want to get Plone’s contentish items only (contentItems) or Zope 2 management objects too (objectIds); the latter covers various site utilities found in the portal root and otherwise hidden magical items.

Special attention must be paid also to object ids. Zope locates all objects by traversing the site graph using ids. The id mapping is usually a property of a parent object, not the child. Thus most of the listing methods tend to return (id, object) tuples instead of plain objects.

Ensuring that the content item is a folder

All Plone folderish content types provide the IFolderish interface. Check that this is present to make sure that a content item is a folder, and that contentItems() and the other methods are available:

from Products.CMFCore.interfaces import IFolderish

def recurse_all_content(portal):

    output = StringIO()

    def recurse(context):
        """ Recurse through all content on Plone site """

        print >> output, "Recursing to item:" + str(context)

        # Make sure that we recurse to real folders only,
        # otherwise contentItems() might be acquired from higher level
        if IFolderish.providedBy(context):
            for id, item in context.contentItems():


    return output

Getting all content objects inside a folder

The contentItems method is defined in CMFCore/ From Plone 4 and later, you can also use folder.items() instead (this applies to the whole section below). See source code for details, e.g. filtering and other forms of listing.

Querying folder through catalog

These methods apply for real folders, and not for collections.

Getting indexed objects

This is a faster method. portal_catalog must be up-to-date for the folder. This will return brain objects:

brains = folder.getFolderContents()

Getting full objects

items = folder.contentItems() # return Python list of children object tuples (id, object)


The contentItems() call may be costly, since it will return the actual content objects, not the indexed metadata from the portal_catalog. You should avoid this method if possible.


folder.contentItems() returns all items regardless of the user security context.

Getting folder objects filtered

The listFolderContents() method retrieves the content objects from the folder. It takes contentFilter as an argument to specify filtering of the results. contentFilter uses the same syntax as portal_catalog queries, but does not support all the same parameters; e.g. object_provides is not supported. See the ContentFilter class for details.


# List all types in this folder whose portal_type is "CourseModulePage"
return self.listFolderContents(contentFilter={"portal_type" : "CourseModulePage"})


Security warning: listFolderContents() honors the currently logged-in user roles.


Performance warning: slow for large folders. Rather use portal_catalog and path-based queries to query items in a large folder.

Rules for filtering items

Plone applies some default rules for listFolderContents()

  • portal_properties.nav_tree_properties.metaTypesNotToQuery: folders (large folders) don’t generate listing.

  • default_page are not listed.

  • portal_properties.nav_tree_properties: meta types marked here do not appear in the listing.

Why does folder_listing not list my contents?

The site search settings (Site Setup–> Search) modifies the way folder_listing works.

If you specifify that you do not want to search objects of type Page, they will not appear in folder_listing anymore.

From this thread.

orderObjects() to set a key for ordering the items in a particular folder

With Plone 4+ an adapter can be registered and used to apply a custom order to a particular folder: see setOrdering. The DefaultOrdering adapter allows a key to be set for a particular folder, and optionally to reverse the order. This can be adjusted via a method on the folder:

context.orderObjects(key="Title", reverse=True)


Unlike the python sort() and sorted() methods, the key parameter expects an attribute, not a function.

Enforcing manual sort order

Below is an example of how to order content items by their manual sort order (the one you create via drag and drop on the contents tab):

from OFS.interfaces import IOrderedContainer

queried_objects = list(folder.listFolderContents())

def get_position_in_parent(obj):
    Use IOrderedContainer interface to extract the object's manual ordering position
    parent = obj.aq_inner.aq_parent
    ordered = IOrderedContainer(parent, None)
    if ordered is not None:
        return ordered.getObjectPosition(obj.getId())
    return 0

def sort_by_position(a, b):
    Python list sorter cmp() using position in parent.

    Descending order.
    return get_position_in_parent(a) - get_position_in_parent(b)

queried_objects = sorted(queried_objects, sort_by_position)

Getting object ids

If you need to get ids only, use the objectIds() method, or keys() in Plone 4. This is a fast method:

# Return a list of object ids in the folder
ids = folder.objectIds()  # Plone 3 or older
ids = folder.keys()       # Plone 4 or newer


objectIds() and keys() will return ids for raw Zope 2 objects too, not just Plone content. If you call objectIds() on the portal root object, you will get objects like acl_users, portal_workflow etc …

Getting non-contentish Zope objects

In some special cases, it is necessary to manipulate non-contentish Zope objects.

This listing method applies to all OFS.Folder.Folder objects, not just Plone content objects:

for id, item in folder.objectItems():
    # id is 8-bit string of object id in the folder
    # item is the object itself

Checking for the existence of a particular object id

If you want to know whether the folder has a certain item or not, you can use the following snippet.

Plone 4

Use has_key:

if folder.has_key("my-object-id"):
    # Exists
    # Does not exist

Listing the folder items using portal_catalog

This should be your preferred method for querying folder items. portal_catalog searches are fast, because they return catalog brain objects instead of the real content objects (less database look ups).


Returned catalog brain data, such as Title, will be UTF-8 encoded. You need to call brain["title"].decode("utf-8") or similar on all text you want to extract from the data.

Simple example how to get all items in a folder:

# Get the physical path (includes Plone site name)
# to the folder
path = folder.getPhysicalPath()

# Convert getPhysicalPath() tuples result to
# slash separated string, which is used by ExtendedPathIndex
path = "/".join(path)

# This will fetch catalog brains.
# Includes also unpublished items, not caring about workflow state.
# depth = 1 means that subfolder items are not included

brains = context.portal_catalog(path={"query": path, "depth": 1})

Here’s a complex example of how to perform various filtering operations, honouring some default Plone filtering rules. This example is taken from Products.CMFPlone/skins/plone_scripts/getFolderContents:

mtool = context.portal_membership
cur_path = '/'.join(context.getPhysicalPath())
path = {}

if not contentFilter:
    # The form and other are what really matters
    contentFilter = dict(getattr(context.REQUEST, 'form',{}))
    contentFilter.update(dict(getattr(context.REQUEST, 'other',{})))
    contentFilter = dict(contentFilter)

if not contentFilter.get('sort_on', None):
    contentFilter['sort_on'] = 'getObjPositionInParent'

if contentFilter.get('path', None) is None:
    path['query'] = cur_path
    path['depth'] = 1
    contentFilter['path'] = path

show_inactive = mtool.checkPermission(
        'Access inactive portal content', context)

# Evaluate in catalog context because some containers override queryCatalog
# with their own unrelated method (Topics)
contents = context.portal_catalog.queryCatalog(
                contentFilter, show_all=1, show_inactive=show_inactive)

if full_objects:
    contents = [b.getObject() for b in contents]

if batch:
    from Products.CMFPlone import Batch
    b_start = context.REQUEST.get('b_start', 0)
    batch = Batch(contents, b_size, int(b_start), orphan=0)
    return batch

return contents

Count of content items

Counting items using getFolderContents

The least expensive call for this, if you have tens of items, is to call len() on the result of calling getFolderContents(), which is a portal_catalog based query:

items = len(self.getFolderContents())

Counting items using contentItems

Alternatively, if you know there are not many objects in in the folder, you can call contentItems() (or simply items() in Plone 4 or newer), as this will potentially wake fewer items than a complex catalog query.


Security: This method does not consider access rights.

Example (AT content class method):

def getMainImage(self):
    items = self.contentItems() # id, object tuples
    # "items = self.items()" in Plone 4 or newer
    if len(items) > 0:
        return items[1]

Custom folder listing

Here is an example how to create a view which will render a custom listing for a folder or a collection (ATTopic).

The view is called ProductSummaryView and it is registered with the name productsummary. This example is not suitable for your add-on product as is: you need to tailor it for your specific needs.


If you are going to call item/getObject on a catalog brain, it might cause excessive database load as it causes a new database query per object. Try use information available in the catalog or add more catalog indexes. To know more about the issue read about waking up database objects.

  • First, let’s register our view. We could limit content types for which the view is enabled by specifying Products.ATContentTypes.interface.IATFolder or Products.ATContentTypes.interface.IATTopic in the for attribute. Cf. the configure.zcml snippet below:

  • Below is the example view code, named as

    from zope.interface import implements, Interface
    from zope import schema
    from Products.Five import BrowserView
    from Products.CMFCore.utils import getToolByName
    from Products.ATContentTypes.interface import IATTopic
    # zope.18n message translator for your add-on product
    from yourproduct.namespace import appMessageFactory as _
    class IProductCardSummaryView(Interface):
        """ Allowed template variables exposed from the view.
        # Item list as iterable Products.CMFPlone.PloneBatch.Batch object
        contents = schema.Object(Interface)
    class ProductCardSummaryView(BrowserView):
        List summary information for all product cards in the folder.
        Batch results.
        def query(self, start, limit, contentFilter):
            """ Make catalog query for the folder listing.
            @param start: First index to query
            @param limit: maximum number of items in the batch
            @param contentFilter: portal_catalog filtering dictionary with index -> value pairs.
            @return: Products.CMFPlone.PloneBatch.Batch object
            # Batch size
            b_size = limit
            # Batch start index, zero based
            b_start = start
            # We use different query method, depending on
            # whether we do listing for topic or folder
            if IATTopic.providedBy(self.context):
                # ATTopic like content
                # Call Products.ATContentTypes.content.topic.ATTopic.queryCatalog() method
                # This method handles b_start internally and
                # grabs it from HTTPRequest object
                return self.context.queryCatalog(contentFilter, batch=True, b_size=b_size)
                # Folder or Large Folder like content
                # Call CMFPlone(/skins/plone_scripts/getFolderContents Python script
                # This method handles b_start parametr internally and grabs it from the request object
                return self.context.getFolderContents(contentFilter, batch=True, b_size=b_size)
        def __call__(self):
            """ Render the content item listing.
            # How many items is one one page
            limit = 3
            # What kind of query we perform?
            # Here we limit results to ProductCard content type
            filter = { "portal_type" : "ProductCard" }
            # Read the first index of the selected batch parameter as HTTP GET request query parameter
            start = self.request.get("b_start", 0)
            # Perform portal_catalog query
            self.contents = self.query(start, limit, filter)
            # Return the rendered template (, with content listing information filled in
            return self.index()
  • Below is the corresponding page template skeleton

<html xmlns="" xml:lang="en"
    <div metal:fill-slot="main">
        <tal:main-macro metal:define-macro="main">

            <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontenttitle" />

            <h1 metal:use-macro="here/kss_generic_macros/macros/generic_title_view">
                Title or id

            <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontenttitle" />

            <p metal:use-macro="here/kss_generic_macros/macros/generic_description_view">

            <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.abovecontentbody" />

            <tal:listing define="batch view/contents">

                <tal:block tal:repeat="item batch">
                    <div class="tileItem visualIEFloatFix vevent"
                         tal:define="normalizeString nocall: context/plone_utils/normalizeString;
                                           item_url item/getURL|item/absolute_url;
                                           item_id item/getId|item/id;
                                           item_title_or_id item/pretty_title_or_id;
                                           item_description item/Description;
                                           item_type item/portal_type;
                                           item_type_title item/Type;
                                           item_type_class python: 'contenttype-' + normalizeString(item_type);
                                           item_modified item/ModificationDate;
                                           item_created item/CreationDate;
                                           item_wf_state        item/review_state|python: wtool.getInfoFor(item, 'review_state', '');
                                           item_wf_state_class python:'state-' + normalizeString(item_wf_state);
                                           item_creator item/Creator;
                                           item_start item/start/ISO|item/StartDate|nothing;
                                           item_end item/end/ISO|item/EndDate|nothing;
                         tal:attributes="class string:tileItem visualIEFloatFix vevent ${item_type_class}">

                        <a href="#"
                           tal:attributes="href item_url">
                            <img src="" alt=""
                                 tal:attributes="src item_object/main_image" />

                        <h2 class="tileHeadline"

                            <a href="#"
                               class="summary url"
                               tal:attributes="href item_url"
                                Item Title


                        <p class="tileBody">
                            <span tal:omit-tag="" tal:condition="not:item_description">
                            <span class="description" tal:content="item_description">

                        <p class="tileFooter">
                            <a href=""
                               tal:attributes="href item_url"
                            Read More&hellip;

                        <div class="visualClear"><!-- --></div>


                <!-- Navigation -->
                <div metal:use-macro="here/batch_macros/macros/navigation" />


            <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.belowcontentbody" />

  • Go to view page by adding /@@productsummary to your folder URL.

Making view available in the Display… menu

You need to add the browser:menuItem entry to make your view appear in the Display… menu from which folders and topics can choose the style of the display.

See dynamic views.

You need to add:

  • <browser:menuItem> configuration directive with view id (e.g. @@productsummary)

  • New properties to Folder.xml or Topic.xml so that the view becomes available

Preventing folder listing

If the users can access the content items they can usually also list them.

Here is a no-warranty hack how to prevent folder_listing if needed:

from zope.component import adapter
from ZPublisher.interfaces import IPubEvent,IPubAfterTraversal
from Products.CMFCore.utils import getToolByName
from AccessControl.unauthorized import Unauthorized
from import getSite

def Protector(event):
    """ Protect anonymous users from access to folder_listing etc. """

    site = getSite()
    if not site:

    ms = getToolByName(site, 'portal_membership')
    member = ms.getAuthenticatedMember()
    if not member.getUserName() == 'Anonymous User':

    URL = event.request.URL
    if '/folder_' in URL:
        raise Unauthorized('unable to access folder listing')

Complex folder listings and filtering

The following example is for a complex folder listing view.

You can call view methods to returns the listed items themselves and render the HTML in another view — this allows you to recycle this listing code.

The view does the various sanity checks that normal Plone item listings do:

  • no meta items,

  • no large folders,

  • no default views,

  • filter by active language,

  • do not list items where you do not have the View permission,

  • perform the listing on the parent container if the context itself is not folderish.

Example code:

class FolderListingView(BrowserView):
    """ Mobile folder listing helper view

    Use getItems() to get list of mobile folder listable items for
    automatically generated mobile folder listings (touch button list).

    def getListingContainer(self):
        """ Get the item for which we perform the listing
        context = self.context.aq_inner
        if IFolderish.providedBy(context):
            return context
            return context.aq_parent

    def getActiveTemplate(self):
        state = getMultiAdapter(
                (self.context, self.request),
        return state.view_template_id()

    def getTemplateIdsNoListing(self):
        @return: List of mobile-specific ids found from portal_properties where not to show folder listing

            from import getCachedMobileProperties
            context = aq_inner(self.context)
            mobile_properties = getCachedMobileProperties(context, self.request)
            mobile_properties = None

        return getattr(mobile_properties, "no_folder_listing_view_ids", [])

    def filterItems(self, container, items):
        """ Apply mobile specific filtering rules

        @param items: List of context brains

        # Filter out default content
        default_page_helper = getMultiAdapter(
                (container, self.request),

        portal_state = getMultiAdapter(
                (container, self.request),

        # Active language
        language = portal_state.language()

        # Return  the default page id or None if not set
        default_page = default_page_helper.getDefaultPage(container)

        security_manager = getSecurityManager()

        meta_types_not_to_list = container.portal_properties.navtree_properties.metaTypesNotToList

        def show(item):
            """ Filter whether the user can view a mobile item.

            @param item: Real content object (not brain)

            @return: True if item should be visible in the listing

            # Check from mobile behavior should we do the listing
                behavior = IMobileBehavior(item)
                appearInFolderListing = behavior.appearInFolderListing
            except TypeError:
                # Site root or some weird object, give up
                appearInFolderListing = True

            if not appearInFolderListing:
                # Default to appearing
                return False

            # Default page should not appear in the quick listing
            if item.getId() == default_page:
                return False

            if item.meta_type in meta_types_not_to_list:
                return False

            # Two letter language code
            item_lang = item.Language()

            # Empty string makes language netral content
            if item_lang not in ["", None]:
                if item_lang != language:
                    return False

            # Note: getExcludeFromNav not necessarily exist on all content types
            if hasattr(item, "getExcludeFromNav"):
                if item.getExcludeFromNav():
                    return False

            # Does the user have a permission to view this object
            if not security_manager.checkPermission(permissions.View, item):
                return False

            return True

        return [ i for i in items if show(i) == True ]

    def constructListing(self):

        # Iterable of content items for the item listing
        items = []

        # Check from mobile behavior should we do the listing
            behavior = IMobileBehavior(self.context)
            do_listing = behavior.mobileFolderListing
        except TypeError:
            # Site root or some weird object, give up
            do_listing = False

        # Do listing by default, must be explicitly disabledc
        if not do_listing:
            # No mobile behavior -> no mobile listing
            return None

        container = self.getListingContainer()

        # Do not list if already doing folder listing
        template = self.getActiveTemplate()
        print "Active template id:" + template
        if template in self.getTemplateIdsNoListing():
            # Listing forbidden by mobile rules
            return None

        portal_properties = getToolByName(container, "portal_properties")
        navtree_properties = portal_properties.navtree_properties
        if container.meta_type in navtree_properties.parentMetaTypesNotToQuery:
            # Big folder... listing forbidden
            return None

        state = container.restrictedTraverse('@@plone_portal_state')

        items = container.listFolderContents()

        items = self.filterItems(container, items)

        return items

    def getItems(self):
        @return: Iterable of content objects. Never return None.
        items = self.constructListing()
        if items == None:
            return []
        return items

Empty listing view

Sometimes you want a show folder without listing its content. You can create a dynamic view in your add-on which is available from Display… menu.

Example configure.zcml bit



<html xmlns=""

    <metal:block fill-slot="content-title">

    <metal:block fill-slot="content-core">


Example profiles/default/types/Folder.xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<object name="Folder"
    meta_type="Factory-based Type Information with dynamic views" >
    <property name="view_methods" purge="False">
        <!-- We retrofit these new views for Folders in portal_types info -->
        <element value="empty_listing"/>

Reinstall your add-on.

empty-listing should appear in Display… menu.